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Fig. 13 | Alzheimer's Research & Therapy

Fig. 13

From: Nrf2 activation through the PI3K/GSK-3 axis protects neuronal cells from Aβ-mediated oxidative and metabolic damage

Fig. 13

Methazolamide, melatonin, and Trolox activate Nrf2 through a PI3K-mediated pathway. SH-SY5Y cells were treated with MTZ (300 μM), MEL (100 μM), or Trolox (300 μM) in the presence of the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin (10 μM each) or the GSK-3 inhibitor SB216763 (10 μM). As a control, cells were incubated with SFN (5 μM), a compound capable of activating Nrf2 through disruption of its binding to Keap-1, a PI3K-independent pathway. In all cases, Nrf2 expression was evaluated by immunocytochemistry as in Figs. 7 and 8. Green fluorescence highlights Nrf2 nuclear translocation, and red fluorescence depicts actin staining with Alexa 588-conjugated phalloidin. Bar represents 20 μm in all images. Quantitation of the nuclear fluorescence signal is shown in Additional file 2: Figure S2

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