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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the dementia prediction population

From: Prediction models for dementia and neuropathology in the oldest old: the Vantaa 85+ cohort study

Characteristics No dementia at death (n = 148) Dementia at death (n = 97) p Value
Follow-up time, years 5.4 (2.7) 5.8 (2.6) 0.3
Sociodemographics
 Age at baseline, years 88.4 (2.6) 88.3 (2.6) 0.7
 Men, n (%) 33 (22%) 19 (20%) 0.6
 Education, years 4.6 (3.3) 3.7 (2.0) 0.01
 Social class 6.0 (1.5) 6.2 (1.3) 0.2
Cognition
 MMSE Total 25.3 (3.3) 22.2 (4.5) < 0.001
 MMSE Calculation 3.4 (1.6) 2.9 (1.6) 0.02
 MMSE Orientation 9.5 (0.8) 8.7 (1.6) < 0.001
 MMSE Other tasks 7.4 (1.2) 6.7 (1.4) < 0.001
 MMSE Wordlist 5.0 (1.1) 4.2 (1.3) < 0.001
 SPMSQ 0.8 (1.4) 1.8 (1.9) < 0.001
Functioning
 Competence in daily activities 2.6 (1.3) 3.2 (1.4) 0.001
 ADL sum (ADL + IADL) 29.7 (10.2) 31.6 (10.1) 0.2
 Subjective memory decline 1.7 (0.6) 1.9 (0.7) 0.05
APOE genotype
ε2ε3 17 (12%) 18 (19%) 0.02
ε2ε4 1 (1%) 5 (6%)
ε3ε3 101 (69%) 53 (55%)
ε3ε4 27 (18%) 18 (19%)
ε4ε4 0 (0%) 1 (1%)
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Cardiovascular 114 (77%) 66 (68%) 0.1
 Cerebrovascular 22(15%) 19 (20%) 0.3
 Diabetes 29 (20%) 28 (29%) 0.09
Cholesterol, mmol/L
 Total cholesterol 5.9 (1.3) 5.7 (1.1) 0.2
 LDL cholesterol 4.0 (1.2) 3.8 (1.0) 0.2
 HDL cholesterol 1.0 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 0.2
Blood pressure, mmHg
 Systolic 161 (25) 157 (27) 0.2
 Diastolic 85 (11) 84 (12) 0.6
Lifestyle factors
 BMI 25.4 (4.4) 24.9 (3.6) 0.3
 No alcohol use, n (%) 99 (67%) 67 (69%) 0.8
 Nonsmokers, n (%) 144 (97%) 95 (98%) 0.7
Depressive symptoms
 Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale 26.8 (5.8) 26.7 (5.5) 1
  1. Abbreviations: ADL Activities of daily living, APOE Apolipoprotein E, BMI body mass index, HDL/LDL High-/low-density lipoprotein, IADL Instrumental activities of daily living, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, SPMSQ Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire
  2. Values are shown as mean (SD) or number (percent). p Values were calculated with the Mann-Whitney U test or χ2 test for categorical variables. Social class is categorized on a scale from 1 (lowest) to 10 (highest) [13]
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