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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of African American and Caucasian research participants

From: Race modifies the relationship between cognition and Alzheimer’s disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers

  Overall Normal cognition MCI AD
African American (n = 65) Caucasian (n = 70) African American (n = 27) Caucasian (n = 29) African American (n = 27) Caucasian (n = 25) African American (n = 11) Caucasian (n = 16)
Age, years (SD) 69.1 (7.4) 70.8 (7.7) 67.5 (6.2) 71.4 (8.1) 67.7 (7.6) 71.5 (5.8) 71.4 (9.1) 68.5 (9.4)
Male sex, n (%) 29 (45%) 29 (41%) 10 (37%) 12 (41%) 15 (56%) 10 (40%) 4 (36%) 7 (44%)
Education, years (SD) 16.1 (2.8) 16.4 (2.7) 15.8 (2.7) 17.0 (2.6) 16.3 (2.9) 17.1 (2.6) 16.7 (3.4) 14.2 (1.9)
MMSE (SD) 26.1 (4.0) 26.7 (3.6) 28.0 (1.8) 28.9 (0.8) 26.6 (2.4) 27.6 (1.7) 20.5 (5.9) 21.4 (3.4)
Hypertension 47 (72%)a 32 (46%) 17 (63%) 13 (45%) 21 (78%) 14 (56%) 9 (82%) 5 (31%)
Diabetes 22 (34%)a 4 (6%) 9 (33%) 2 (7%) 8 (30%) 0 5 (45%) 2 (12%)
Average number of vascular risk factors (SD) 1.9 (1.2)a 1.3 (1.1) 1.5 (1.1) 1.3 (1.3) 2.2 (1.3) 1.4 (0.9) 2.2 (1.2) 1.0 (1.0)
Having at least one APOE ε4 allele, n (%) 31/60 (52%) 35/70 (50%) 7/25 (29%) 11 (38%) 15/26 (58%) 13 (52%) 9/10 (90%) 11 (69%)
Having ABCA7 risk allele, n (%) 28/60 (47%)a 16/70 (23%) 12/25 (48%) 8 (27%) 13/25 (52%) 6 (24%) 3/10 (30%) 2 (12%)
Completed LP, n (%) 58 (89%) 68 (97%) 23 (85%) 28 (97%) 25 (93%) 25 (100%) 10 (91%) 15 (94%)
CSF
 Aβ42, pg/ml (SD) 212.3 (118) 207.2 (148) 273 (110) 250 (131) 178 (110) 226 (172) 158 (105) 96 (61)
 Aβ40, ng/ml (SD) 7.89 (2.92) 9.29 (3.32) 7.21 (1.96)a 10.03 (3.65) 7.83 (3.21) 9.38 (3.18) 9.49 (3.61) 7.91 (2.54)
 t-Tau, pg/ml (SD) 47.0 (31.1)a 71.5 (47.8) 36.3 (12.0)a 58.6 (29.0) 46.4 (38.6) 66.6 (38.4) 72.8 (27.5) 103.8 (72.9)
 p-Tau181, pg/ml (SD) 17.9 (9.3)a 25.6 (12.6) 13.8 (5.1)a 22.5 (9.8) 18.8 (10.2) 24.0 (12.0) 25.3 (10.3) 34.2 (14.9)
CSF t-Tau/Aβ42 > 0.39 17/58 (29%) 31/68 (46%) 2/23 (9%) 7/28 (25%) 9/25 (36%) 13/25 (52%) 6/10 (60%) 11/15 (73%)
Log10(NfL), ng/ml (SD) 2.87 (0.27) 2.97 (0.19) 2.76 (0.23) 2.96 (0.22) 2.87 (0.26) 2.96 (0.15) 3.14 (0.23) 3.02 (0.22)
Log10(WMH), cm3 (SD) 0.367 (0.453) 0.437 (0.364) 0.238 (0.337) 0.355 (0.365) 0.401 (0.515) 0.483 (0.308) 0.607 (0.466) 0.514 (0.431)
  1. Abbreviations: Aβ40 β-Amyloid 1–40, Aβ42 β-Amyloid 1–42, AD Alzheimer’s disease, APOE Apolipoprotein E, CSF Cerebrospinal fluid, MCI Mild cognitive impairment, MMSE Mini Mental State Examination, NfL Neurofilament light chain, p-Tau 181 Tau phosphorylated at threonine 181, t-Tau Total tau, WMH White matter hyperintensity
  2. Values shown are unadjusted
  3. aValues or proportions differed between the two races (p < 0.005)
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